Arabic Literary Translations in China: A Brief History

Chinese PhD student Sha Min — who also blogs about Arabic literature in Chinese — gives an overview of the movement of Arabic literature into Chinese:

By Sha Min 

quranThe relationship between China and the Arabic-writing world has lasted for more than two thousand years. But, according to recorded information, the translation of Arabic literature in China started late. The first translations from Arabic into Chinese can be traced back to the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1912) Dynasties.

After the founding of New China, along with the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Arab countries, a number of Arabic works were translated into Chinese. This translational relationship was mostly suspended during China’s Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), which brought great destruction to cultural fields in the country. After the reform and opening up (1978), Arabic literature translations re-entered the field of people’s vision, and an increasing number of Arabic poems and novels were translated into Chinese, with a thriving scene by the end of the last century.

In the twentieth century, there were three stages of Arabic literary translations in China:

  1. Before the establishment of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)

Religious works were first translated when Chinese Muslims, such as Wang Daiyu, Liu Zhi, and Hu Dengzhou, began to interpret Islam using the Chinese language during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The early translations of Arabic literary works were also related to the religion, because most of the translators in this period were Muslims. For instance, Ma Fuchu and Ma Anli translated Qaṣīdat al-Burda of al-Būṣīrī into Chinese in 1866.

Afterwards, other Muslims followed with interest, taking on wider Arab-Islamic cultural horizons: Na Xun began to translate the Arabian Nights in the 1930s, while Ma Zongrong translated Twittering of Birds (1934) and The Death of ʿAntara (1936)[1]. There were also some non-Muslim translators who contributed to translating Arabic works from English into Chinese, such as Xi Ruo, who translated Arabian Nights (1930) and Bing Xin who translated The Prophet by Khalīl Jibrān (1931). Despite the small number of Arabic translations during this period, they indeed opened a door for Chinese readers to understand a different socio-cultural reality.

  1. During the early period of PRC (1949-1966)

In this period, it’s clear that political factors exerted a greater influence on the choice of works to translate than did literary ones.

Like Arab countries, China had suffered from and experienced the tragedy of imperialist colonial oppression, and also struggled for freedom and independence. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the national liberation movements of Arab peoples against imperialism and colonialism emerged, while China established the diplomatic relations with Egypt, Syria and other Arab countries. To support Asian and African people in their struggle for national independence and liberation, many Arabic works were translated into Chinese, such as The Wind of Peace (1958), Selected Poems of Egyptian Warriors for Peace (1958), Voice of Arab People (1958), Go Home! Robber! (1958), The Song of Fight (1963), Victory Belongs to Algeria (1963), and similar.

As the relationship between China and Russia was at this time going well, and many more translators understood Russian than Arabic, these works were more often translated from Russian than from Arabic.

Besides these political works, some classical works were also translated (from Arabic) in this period, such as Arabian Nights (1957) translated by Na Xun and Kalīla and Dimna (1959) translated by Lin Xinghua.

Unfortunately, because of the Cultural Revolution in mainland China, which sent various cultural activities in the country into recession, translation went on hold for a long time. This lasted until the reform and opening up.

  1. After the reform and opening up

mahfouzWith the end of the Cultural Revolution, many cultural fields, including translation, started to recover. Arabic literary translations went into golden ages, with an increasing number of works translated directly from Arabic into Chinese. Since translation in this period was no konger under the influence of strong political tendencies, the forms and contents of Arabic works became rich and colorful.

Almost all of the various works by Najīb Maḥfūẓ were translated into Chinese. In addition to his prestigious Trilogy[2], other works such as Tragedy of the Nile (The Beginning and The End), Last Will and Testament (Mockery of the Fates), Courtesan and Pharaoh (Rādūbīs), Children of Gebelawi and more were translated and researched in China. Khalīl Jibrān’s works were also translated and reprinted again and again, both from English and Arabic.

In this period, China, just like Arab countries, was also facing the problem of how to deal with the relationship between Western cultures and Eastern ones, so in China many works on these topics were translated and welcomed, such as Come Back, My Heart! (1983), Tayeb Salih’s Season of Migration to the North (1983), and Yusuf Idris’s The Return of the Spirit (1985).

The Arabic literary translations in mainland China shared several characteristics:

season of migraionFirst, some of the translation terms and the titles of works were inconsistent, for example, Rādūbīs by Najīb Maḥfūẓ was translated in the name of Courtesan and Pharaoh while Season of Migration to the North changed to Amorous Saʿīd in order to attract readers’ attentions.

Second, the selection of Arabic works focused on some countries like Egypt, Lebanon and Syria in the twentieth century. Now in China, more and more scholars and translators are realizing the importance of the literature in the Gulf countries. For that reason, we can find an increasing number of translations presenting the literature of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Oman and United Arab Emirates.

Third, in the previous century, Chinese translators valued the modern Arabic literature over classical works. This tendency still exists today.

Finally, the translators were almost all Chinese, and we can hardly find any Arab translating their literature into Chinese.

Bibliography[3]

Translation from Arabic :

The Qurʾān. Trans. Ma Jian. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1952. Print.

Al-Būṣīrī. Qaṣīdat al-Burda. Trans. Ma Anli. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1957. Print.

One Thousand and One Nights(1-3). Trans.Na Xun. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1957. Print.

The World of Tomorrow (poetry of Iraqi poets). People’s Literature Editorial Department, ed. Beijing:

People’s Literature Press, 1958. Print.

The Wind of Peace (poetry of Lebanese poets). People’s Literature Editorial Department. ed. Beijing:

People’s Literature Press, 1958. Print.

Selected Poems of Jordanian Warriors for Peace. Trans. Ping Fan, et al. Shanghai: Shanghai Literature

and Art Publishing House, 1958. Print.

Selected Poems of Iraqi Warriors for Peace. Trans. Zhu Jia, et al. Shanghai: Shanghai Literature

and Art Publishing House, 1958. Print.

Selected Poems of Lebanese Warriors for Peace. Trans. Gu Yongzhong, et al. Shanghai: Shanghai Literature and Art Publishing House, 1958. Print.

Selected Poems of Syrian Warriors for Peace. Trans. Ling Ke, et al. Shanghai: Shanghai Literature and Art Publishing House, 1958. Print.

Selected Poems of Egyptian Warriors for Peace. Trans. Ling Ke, et al. Shanghai: Shanghai Literature

and Art Publishing House, 1958. Print.

Voice of Arab People (poetry of Arab Anti-imperialists and Anti-colonialists poets). Trans. All the students of Department of Arabic Language in Peking University. Beijing: People’s Literature Press. 1958. Print.

The Modern Arabic Poetry. Trans. Ma Jian, Chen Jiahou, et,al. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House, 1958. Print.

The Modern Arabic Poetry. Translation Publishing House, ed. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1958. Print.

Collection of Modern Arabic Novels. Translation Publishing House, ed. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House,1958. Print.

The Asian and African Folk Stories. Translation Publishing House, ed. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House,1958. Print.

Go Home!Robber! (collection of the poems and articles of writers that from various countries to support the Arab people’s just struggle).Translation Publishing House, ed. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House,1958. Print.

One Thousand and One Nights. 3 vols.Trans.Na Xun. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1958. Print.

ʾAbu al-Qāsim Saʿad Allāh. Victory Belongs to Algeria. Trans. Yang Youyi and Lu Xiaoxiu. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1959. Print.

ʿAbd Allāh Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ. Kalīla and Dimna. Trans. Lin Xinghua. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1959. Print.

Adventure of Sindibād (selected from one thousand and one nights). Trans. Na Xun. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1959. Print.

Selected Arabic New poems. Trans. Ma Jian, et, all. Shanghai: Shanghai Literature and Art Publishing House, 1960. Print

Ṭaha Ḥusayn. The Days. Trans. Qin Xing. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House,1961. Print.

ʾAsad Muḥammad al-Qāsim. Hurricanes in Jordan (poetry). Trans. Musa and Lu Xiaoxiu. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House,1961. Print.

Abū al-Qāsim ash-Shābī. The Poems of ash-Shābī. Trans. Dong Lin. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House, 1961. Print.

Adventure of Sindibād (selected from one thousand and one nights, the braille edition). Trans. Na Xun. Beijing: China Braille Press, 1962. Print.

ʾAḥmad Muḥammad Khair. The Song of Fight. Trans. Pan Dingyu. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House, 1963. Print.

ʿAbū al-Qāsim Saʿad Allāh. Victory Belongs to Algeria. 2th ed. Trans. Yang Youyi and Lu Xiaoxiu. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House, 1963. Print.

ʿAbū Salmā. Ode to the Motherland. Trans. Yang Xiaobo. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House, 1964. Print.

Palestinian Fight Poetry. Trans. Pan Dingyu. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1975. Print.

Long Live The Delegation (egypt drama). The Department of Arabic Language in Peking University, ed. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1975. Print.

Maḥamūd Taymūr. Collection of Taymūr’s Short Stories. Trans. Wu Yuchi, et, all. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1975. Print.

Munīr al-ʿajlānī. Biography of Fayṣal. Trans. He Yi. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1977. Print.

Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm. The Diary of a Prosecutor Among Peasant. Trans. Wang Fu and Lu Xiaoxiu. Changsha: Hunan People Press, 1979. Print.

A Brief History of Arabic Literature. Trans. Lu Xiaoxiu and Yao Junde. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1980. Print.

ʾAḥmad Shawqī Ḍaif. History of Arabic Modern Literature. Trans. Li Zhenzhong. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1980. Print.

Arabian Nights. Trans. Na Xun. Yunnan: Yunnan People’s Publishing House, 1980. Print.
ʿAlī bābā and the Forty Thieves. Trans. Na Xun. Shanghai: Shanghai Children Press, 1980. Print.

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Sharqāwī. The Earth. Trans. Liu Linrui and Lu Xiaoxiu. Beijing: Foreign Literature Publisching House, 1980. Print.

Yūsuf Sibāʿī. Life Is A Moment. Trans. Wang Fengxu and Wang Guifa. Beijing: Xinhua Press, 1980. Print.

Muḥammad Anwar el-Sādāt. My Life: In Search of Identity. Trans. Li Zhanjing. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1980. Print.

Selected Asian, Africa and Latin America Short Stories. Trans. Asia, African and Latin literature group of “World literature” editorial department. Beijing: China Social Sciences Press, 1980. Print.

Jarjī Zaydān (Lebanese). 17 Ramḍān. Trans. Xing Ji. Beijing: Xinhua Press, 1980. Print.

Maḥamūd Sālim .The Man Stole The Sun. Trans. Han Jiarui. Sichuan: Sichuan Children Press, 1981. Print.

Maḥamūd Sālim .The Horrible Castle. Trans. Gao Yande. Sichuan: Sichuan Children Press, 1981. Print.

Maḥamūd Sālim .The Midnight Train. Trans. Gao Yande. Sichuan: Sichuan Children Press, 1981. Print.

Maḥamūd Sālim .The Arctic Thief. Trans. Li Zhanjing. Sichuan: Sichuan Children Press, 1981. Print.

Hādī al-Sharqāwī. The Secret of Coral Island. Trans. Gao Yande. Sichuan: Sichuan Children Press, 1981. Print.

Maḥamūd Sālim. The Secret of Otters. Trans. Han Jiarui. Sichuan: Sichuan Children Press, 1981. Print.

ʾIḥsān ʿAbd al-Qudūs. The Evil Heart. Trans. Yang Xiaobo. Nanjing: Jiangsu People’s Publishing House, 1981. Print.

Blood Valley (World Literature Series, 6 vols: Collection of Short Stories from west Asia and north Africa). Trans. Zhong Jikun, Pan Dingyu, Zhi Fuhao, et, all. Beijing: China Social Sciences Press, 1981. Print.
Jarjī Zaydān. Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn. Trans. Gu Zhenglong and Ma Jinrong. Beijing: Xinhua Press, 1981. Print.

The Qurʾān. Trans. Ma Jian. Beijing: China Social Sciences Press, 1981. Print.

Mīkhāʾīl Naʿīma. Collection of Naʿīma’s Short Stories. Trans. Zhong Jikun, Zhi Fuhao, Zhu Weilie. Beijing: Foreign Literature Publisching House, 1981. Print.

Mīkhāʾīl Naʿīma. Meet. Trans. Cheng Jingfen. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1981.Print.

ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Juhaimān. The Silent Princess. Trans. Pan Dingyu and Li Yuxia. Yunnan: Yunnan People’s Publishing House, 1981. Print.

Ṣāliḥ Mursī. Into The Abyss. Trans. Guo li et, all. Nanjing: Jiangsu People’s Publishing House, 1981. Print.

ʿUmar ʾAbū Naṣr. ʿAntara. Trans. Gen Di. Beijing: Xinhua Press, 1981. Print.

ʿUmar ʾAbū Naṣr. ʿAntara. Trans. Yu Shan. Beijing: Foreign Literature Publisching House, 1981. Print.

The Arabic Folk Jokes. Trans. Wan Rilin. Beijing: China Folk Literature Press, 1981. Print.

Kamāl al-Mallākh. The Man Who Conquered Darkness. Trans. Li Weizhong. Changsha: Hunan People’s Publishing House, 1982. Print.

Jurjī Zaydān. Virgin of Quraish. Trans. Tang Yang and Huang Fengbai. Beijing: Xinhua Press, 1982. Print.

The Anecdotes of Juḥā (Arabic folk jokes). Trans. Liu Qian, Wan Rilin, Xu Ping. Beijing: China Folk Literature Press, 1982. Print.

Tunisian Folk Stories. Trans. Han Baoguang. Beijing: China Folk Literature Press, 1982. Print.

Munīr Naṣf. May Your Life Better. Trans. Xie Chuanguang. Beijing: Beijing Press, 1982. Print.

Ḥusayn bin Ṭalāl. My Job Is King. Trans. Meng Zao. Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 1982. Print.

One Thousand and One Nights (1-6). Trans.Na Xun. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1982-1984. Print.

Saʿīd Ṣāliḥ. The Desert– My Paradise. Trans. Zhong Jikun and Zhao Longgen. Nanjing: Jiangsu People’s Publishing House, 1983. Print.

Ṣāliḥ Mursī. Into The Abyss. Trans. Pan Dingyu and Shen Zhaodu. Beijing: Xinhua Press, 1983. Print.

Yūsuf ʾIdrīs. The Sin. Trans. Guo Li. Changsha: Hunan People’s Publishing House, 1983. Print.

Yūsuf Sibāʿī. Give Back My Heart. Trans. Zhu Weilie. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1983.Print.

Muḥammad ʾAḥmad Jād al-Moulā. Qur’ān Stories. Trans. Guancheng and An Guozhang, et, all. Beijing: Xinhua Press, 1983. Print.

Ḥanā Mīna. Blue Lamps. Trans. Chen zhongyao. Changsha: Hunan People’s Publishing House, 1983. Print.

Collection of Modern Egyptian Short Stories. Trans. Wu Yuchi and Zhong Jikun. Beijing: China Social Sciences Press, 1983. Print.

ʾIḥsān ʿAbd al-Qudūs. There Is a Man in Our House. Trans. Zhong Jikun and Liu Guangming. Nanjing: Jiangsu People’s Publishing House, 1983. Print.

Ṭayyb Ṣāliḥ. Season of Migration to the North. Trans. Li Zhanjing. Beijing: Foreign Literature Publisching House, 1983. Print.

The Storm in Lion Kingdom (Arabic Fairy tales). Trans. Yang Lu. Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 1983. Print.

Cherry Tree (Arabic Folklore). Trans. Ren Quan, Wan Rilin, et, all. Beijing: China Folk Literature Press, 1983. Print.

The Arabic Jokes. Trans. Wan Rilin, Liu Qian and Xu Ping. Beijing: China Folk Literature Press, 1983. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. The Ḥarāfīsh. Trans. Li Weizhong and Guan Cheng. Changsha: Hunan People’s Publishing House, 1984. Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. A Tear and A Smile. 2th ed. Trans. Zhong Jikun and Yi Hong. Changsha: Hunan People’s Publishing House, 1984. Print.

Ṭayyb Ṣāliḥ. Amorous Sayed (Season of Migration to the North). Trans. Zhang Jiamin and Chen Zhongyao. Shanxi: Shanxi People’s Publishing House, 1984. Print.

Ṭaha Ḥusayn. Curlew’s Prayers. Trans. Bai Shui and Zhi Ru. Beijing: China Braille Press, 1984. Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. Broken Wings. Trans. Yang Xiaobo. Nanjing: Jiangsu People’s Publishing House, 1984. Print.

Muṣṭafā ʾAmīn. The First Love. Trans. Wu Huixuan and Zhu Weilie. Changsha: Hunan People’s Publishing House, 1984. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. Tragedy of the Nile (The Beginning and The End). Trans. Li Weizhong and Guan Cheng. Hebei: Huashan Literature and Art Publishing House, 1984. Print.

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-ʿAjāj. For Freedom. Trans. Lin Zefei. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1984.Print.

Jamāl ʿAbd al-Nāṣīr. For Freedom. Trans. Yang Qiding.Changsha: Hunan People’s Publishing House, 1984. Print.

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Bin Hudūqa. The Wind of the South. Trans. Tao Ziqiang and Wu Huixuan. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1984.Print.

Tawfīq Yūsuf ʿAwwād. The Swordswoman in White. Trans. Ma Ruiyu. Beijing: World Affairs Press, 1984. Print.

Jaurij ʾIbrāhīm al-Khūrī. Oriental Dancing Girls. Trans. Li Weizhong and Ma Ruiyu. Neimenggu: Neimenggu People’s Publishing House, 1985. Print.

Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm. The Return of the Spirit. Trans. Wang Fu and Lu Xiaoxiu. Changsha: Hunan People’s Publishing House, 1985. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. Midaq Alley. Trans. Zhi Fuhao.Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1985.Print.

ʾIbn Baṭūṭa. ʾIbn Baṭūṭa’s Travels. Trans. Ma Jinpeng. Yinchuan: Ningxia People’s Publishing House, 1985. Print.

Arabian Nights (children book). Trans. Wang Ruiqin. Beijing: China Children Press, 1985. Print.

Maḥamūd Sālim. The Stolen Secret Letter. Trans. Pan dingyu. Beijing: Weilai Publishing House, 1985. Print.

Collection of Arabic Short Stories (1-3). Trans. Wang Ruiqin. Beijing: China Cultural Bureau Press, 1986. Print.

Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-Haykal. The Life of Muḥammad. Trans. Wang Yongfang and Zhao Guiyun. Beijing: Xinhua Press, 1986. Print.

ʾIḥsān ʿAbd al-Qudūs. There Is a Man in our House. Trans. Shi Ren. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1986. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. Palace Walk, Palace of Desire, Sugar Street. Trans. Zhu Kai and Li Weizhong. Changsha: Hunan People’s Publishing House, 1986. Print.

Yūsuf Sibāʿī. In The Ruins. Trans. Li Weizhong and Yang Yanhong.Neimenggu: Neimenggu People’s Publishing House, 1986. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. Last Will and Testament (Mockery of the Fates). Trans. Meng Kai. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1986. Print.

Mīkhāʾīl Naʿīma. Jibrān Khalīl Jibrān. Trans. Cheng Jingfen. Changsha: Hunan People’s Publishing House, 1986. Print.

Arabic Fables. Trans. Man Li. Changsha: Hunan Children Press, 1986. Print.

Qurʾān’s Stories. Trans. Yang Liankai and Lin Song. Xinjang: Xinjiang People’s Publishing House, 1986. Print.

Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm. The Return of the Spirit. Trans. Chen Zhongyao. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1986. Print.

Ji Xianlin ed. Oriental Literary Works: Arabic literature. Changsha: Hunan People’s Publishing House, 1986. Print.

Arabian Nights. Trans. Wang Ruiqin. Jiangxi: Jiangxi Children Press, 1987. Print.

The Qurʾān. Trans. Ma Jian. Medina: Saudi King Fahd Quran Printing, 1987. Print.

Jarjī Zaydān. The first Islamic Queen. Trans. Yang Qiding and Yuan Hui. Beijing: World Affairs Press, 1987. Print.

Abū al-Qāsim ash-Shābī. Song of The Life. Trans. Yang Xiaobo. Beijing: Foreign Literature Publishing House, 1987. Print.

Sahar ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd. Selected Islamic Religious Stories. Trans. Yang Linhai, Zhang Liang, Liang Yuzhen. Beijing: World Affairs Press, 1987. Print.

ʾIḥsān ʿAbd al-Qudūs. Honey, We are Both Thieves. Trans. Ge Tieying. Beijing: World Affairs Press, 1987. Print.

Selected of Arabic Novels (8 novels). Trans. Zhu Weilie and Xu Fanxi. Wuhan: Changjiang Literature and Art Publishing House, 1988. Print.

Muḥammad Mirwa. From Blind Children to Writer—Biography of Ṭaha Ḥusayn. Trans. Guan Cheng. Beijing: Cathay Press, 1988. Print.

Lu Jiayu ed. 300 Famous Foreign Poems (inclouding 10 arabic poems). Wuhan: Changjiang Literature and Art Publishing House, 1988. Print.

Ji Xianlin ed. Selected Orient Short Stories (inclouding 18 arabic novels). China Youth Press, 1988. Print.

The Qurʾān. Trans. Lin Song. Publication House of Central Institute of Nationalities, 1988. Print.

Rajāʾ ʿAbd Allāh. Mystery of Crocodile Lake. Trans. Pan Dingyu. Guangzhou: New Century Press, 1988. Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. Voice of the Master (collection). Trans. Lv Yuan. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1989. Print.
Myths of Ancient Egypt. Trans. Zhu Lifu and Kang Manmin. Changsha: Hunan Children Press, 1989. Print. 1989.

Myths of Ancient Egypt. Trans. Fu Fuyuan and Chen Fengli. Hong Kong: China International Culture Press, 1989. Print.

Ancient Babylonian Myths. Trans. Li Chen. Changsha: Hunan Children Press, 1989. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. Courtesan and Pharaoh (Rādūbīs). Trans. Meng Kai. Shanxi: Beiyue Literature and Art Publishing House, 1989. Print.

Collection of Najīb Maḥfūẓ’s Short Stories. Trans. Ge Tieying, et, all. Beijing: Cathay Press, 1989. Print.

Secret of Linghun Island—Adventure Stories of Arabic Teenagers. Trans. Xie Chuanguang. Nationality Publishing House, 1989. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. Children of Gebelawi. Trans. Li Chen. Guangzhou: Huacheng Publishing House, 1990. Print.

Ḥanā al-Fākhūrī. History of the Arabic Literature. Trans. Zhi Fuhao. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1990. Print.
Arabian Nights (1-10). Trans. Wang Ruiqin. Taiwan: Taiwan Chi-mao Heritage Publishing Co., 1990. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. Palace Walk. Trans. Li Zongze. Beijing: Foreign Literature Publisching House, 1990. Print.
Muḥammad Quṭb. Islamic Art Styles. Trans. Yi Hong. Beijing: China Renmin University Press, 1990. Print.

Jarjī Zaydān. Girls of Ghassān. Trans. Li Weizhong. Xinjang: Xinjiang People’s Publishing House, 1991. Print.

Jarjī Zaydān. Egyptian Girl. Trans. Li Weizhong. Xinjang: Xinjiang People’s Publishing House, 1991. Print.

Jarjī Zaydān. Virgin of Quraish. Trans. Li Weizhong. Xinjang: Xinjiang People’s Publishing House, 1991. Print.

ʾUlfat al-ʾIdlibī. Sorrow Smile. Trans. Wang Fu. Beijing: Foreign Literature Publisching House, 1991. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. Palace of Desire. Trans. Li Zongze. Beijing: Foreign Literature Publisching House, 1991. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. Modern Cairo. Trans. Feng Zuoku. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1991.Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. Respected Sir. Trans. Jiang Heping. Beijing: China Cultural Bureau Press, 1991. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. The Street’s Soul (Children of Gebelawi). Trans. Guan Cheng. Guilin: Lijiang Publishing House, 1991. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. Arabian Nights and Days. Trans. Xie Zhirong, et, all. Beijing: China Cultural Bureau Press, 1991. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. Love under the Rain. Trans. Jiang Heping. Beijing: Culture and Art Publishing House, 1991. Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. A Tear and A Smile. 3th ed. Trans. Zhong Jikun, Li Weizhong and Yi Hong. Changsha: Hunan Literature and Art Publishing House, 1991. Print.

Saʿād aṣ-Ṣabāḥ. In the Beginning She was a Woman. Trans. Li Guangbin and Zhong Jikun. Beijing: China Peace Press, 1991. Print.

Saʿād aṣ-Ṣabāḥ. To You, My Son. Trans. Li Guangbin and Wang Fu. Beijing: China Peace Press, 1991. Print.

Saʿād aṣ-Ṣabāḥ. A Wish. Trans. Li Guangbin and Wang Fu. Beijing: China Peace Press, 1991. Print.

Saʿād aṣ-Ṣabāḥ. Fragments of a Woman. Trans. Li Guangbin and Man Tai. Beijing: China Peace Press, 1991. Print.

ʾIḥsān ʿAbd al-Qudūs. Girl’s Road to Ruin. Trans. Yuan Songyue. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1991.Print.

ʾIḥsān ʿAbd al-Qudūs. Madman’s Love (Hole of Black Clothes).Trans. Lin Zefei. Changsha: Hunan Literature and Art Publishing House, 1991. Print.

One Thousand and One Days (1-5). Trans. Wan Rilin, Zhu Mengkui and Wang Fu. Lanzhou: Gansu Children Press, 1991. Print.

Sayf ibn Dhī Yazan. Trans. Li Guangbin. Beijing: World Affairs Press, 1992. Print.

One Thousand and One Nights (children book). Trans. Wang Ruiqin. Hainan: Hainan Press, 1992. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. The Struggle of Thebes. Trans. Liang He. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1992. Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. The Mission of the Prophet. Li Chen ed. Trans. Bing Xin and Xue Qingguo, et, all. Beijing: China Worker Publishing House, 1992. Print.

Zhu Kai ed. Eighty Poems of Khalīl Jibrān. Shandong: Shandong Literature and Art Publishing House, 1992. Print.

Ṣāliḥ Mursī. Arabic 007. Trans. Ding Han. Beijing: The People’s Liberation Army Press, 1992. Print.

Ṣāliḥ Mursī. Spies War Between Arab and Israel. Trans. Yang Yanhong and Ge Tieying,et, all. Beijing: Shiyue Literature and Art Publishing House, 1992. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. Courtesan and Pharaoh (Rādūbīs). 2th ed. Trans. Meng Kai. Shanxi: Beiyue Literature and Art Publishing House, 1992. Print.

Meng shaoqiang ed. 300 Famous Poems Around the World: the arabic part. China Youth Press, 1992. Print.

Li hua ed. Collection of World Love Poems: The Arabic Prat. Tianjing: Baihua Literature and Art Publishing House, 1992. Print.

World Anti-Fascist Literature Series: Asia and Africa Volume, the Arabic part. Trans. Yi Hong, Zhi Fuhao and li rongjian. Chongqing: Chongqing Press, 1992. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. God’s World. Trans. Xie Chuanguang. Yinchuan: Ningxia People’s Publishing House, 1993. Print.

Mīkhāʾīl Naʿīma. Seventy. Trans. Wang Fu and Lu Xiaoxiu. Lanzhou: Gansu People’s Publishing House, 1993. Print.

ʾAḥmad Haikal. Egyptian Fiction and Literary Drama. Trans. Yuan Yifen and Wang Wenhu. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1993.Print.

Yi Hong ed. Complete Prose Poems of Khalīl Jibrān. Trans. Li Weizhong, et, all. Hebei: Huashan Literature and Art Publishing House, 1993. Print.

Yi Hong ed. Complete Prose Poems of Khalīl Jibrān. Zhejiang: Zhejiang Literature and Art Publishing House, 1993. Print.

Yi Hong ed. Complete Works of Khalīl Jibrān. Lanzhou: Gansu People’s Publishing House, 1994. Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. The Wanderer. Trans. Xue Qingguo. Shijiazhuang: Hebei Education Press, 1994. Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. The Storm. Trans. Liu Xinquan and Guan Cheng. Shijiazhuang: Hebei Education Press, 1994. Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. A Tear and A Smile. Trans. Wei Yulan and Guan Cheng. Shijiazhuang: Hebei Education Press, 1994. Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. Rebellious Spirits. Trans. Guan Cheng. Shijiazhuang: Hebei Education Press, 1994. Print.

Selected Libya Short Stories. Trans. Li Rongjian. Wuhan: Wuhan University Press,1994. Print.

Collection of World Porses: The Arabic Part. Trans. Yi Hong, Yang xiaobo and li weizhong, et, all. Nanjing: Jiangsu Literature and Art Publishing House, 1958. Print.

Li Chen ed. A Quarter of Husband. Shijiazhuang: Hebei Education Press, 1995. Print.

ʾAḥmad al-Faqīh. Former Lover. Trans. Li Rongjian. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1995.Print.

Liu Mingjiu ed. Collection of World Short Stories: The Arabic Vol. Trans. Zhi Fuhao. Fujian: Haixia Literature and Art Publishing House, 1996. Print.

Selected Essays of Khalīl Jibrān. Trans. Yi Hong, et, all. Beijing: People’s Daily Publishers, 1996. Print.

Cao Shunqing ed. Oriental Essays: The Arabic Part. Trans. Yi Hong and Ma Ruiyu. Sichuan University Press, 1996. Print.

Du Tie ed. One Thousand and One Nights. 1, 2 Vols. Trans. Ge Tieying. Hebei: Hebei Children Press, 1997. Print.

Du Tie ed. One Thousand and One Nights. 3 Vols. Trans. Zhou Lie, Zhai Yu, and Ye Wenlou. Hebei: Hebei Children Press, 1997. Print.

Du Tie ed. One Thousand and One Nights. 4 Vols. Trans. Zhou Lie. Hebei: Hebei Children Press, 1997. Print.

Du Tie ed. One Thousand and One Nights. 5 Vols. Trans. Yang Yanhong. Hebei: Hebei Children Press, 1997. Print.

Du Tie ed. One Thousand and One Nights. 6 Vols. Trans. Zhang Hongyi. Hebei: Hebei Children Press, 1997. Print.

Du Tie ed. One Thousand and One Nights. 7 Vols. Trans. Qi Mingmin. Hebei: Hebei Children Press, 1997. Print.

Du Tie ed. One Thousand and One Nights. 8 Vols. Trans. Gao Youzhen. Hebei: Hebei Children Press, 1997. Print.

Beijing Language & Culture University, ʿAin ash-Shams University. Selected Ancient Arabic Poems (from A.D.475 to A.D.1798). Beijing Language and Culture University Press, 1997. Print.

Thurayā al-baqṣamī. Collection of Thurayā’s Short Stories.Trans. Zhu Zidian. Beijing: World Affairs Press, 1998. Print.

ʾIḥsān ʿAbd al-Qudūs. Selected Short Stories of ʾIḥsān ʿAbd al-Qudūs. Trans. Zhong Jikun. Changsha: Hunan Literature and Art Publishing House, 1998. Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. Rādūbīs, The Struggle of Thebes, Mockery of the Fates. Trans. Meng Kai and Yuan Yifen. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1998. Print.

Zhi Fuhao ed. Arabian Nights. Trans. Zhong Jikun and Zhi Fuhao, et, all. Guangxi: Lijiang Press, 1998. Print.

Yi Hong ed. Essays of Khalīl Jibrān. Shanghai: Shanghai Literature and Art Publishing House, 1999. Print.

Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh. After the Sunset. Trans. Yuan Songyue. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1999. Print.

One Thousand and One Nights: Civilians Part. Trans. Xie Chuanguang and Wang Hong. Beijing: Beijing Children and Juvenile Publishing House, 1998. Print.

One Thousand and One Nights: Birds and Animals Part. Trans. Xie Chuanguang and Wang Xiuying. Beijing: Beijing Children and Juvenile Publishing House, 1999. Print.

One Thousand and One Nights: Mythical Part. Trans. Xie Chuanguang and Wang Xiuying. Beijing: Beijing Children and Juvenile Publishing House, 1999. Print.

Zhi Fuhao ed. One Thousand and One Nights: Selected Love Stories. Trans. Zhi Fuhao. Beijing: Social Science Academic Press, 2000. Print.

Zhi Fuhao ed. One Thousand and One Nights: Selected Fables. Trans. Li Weizhong. Beijing: Social Science Academic Press, 2000. Print.

Zhi Fuhao ed. One Thousand and One Nights: Selected Adventure Stories. Trans. Ma Ruiyu. Beijing: Social Science Academic Press, 2000. Print.

Zhi Fuhao ed. One Thousand and One Nights: Selected Myths. Trans. Liu Guangmin. Beijing: Social Science Academic Press, 2000. Print.

Zhi Fuhao ed. One Thousand and One Nights: Selected Witty Stories. Trans. Zhang Hongyi. Beijing: Social Science Academic Press, 2000. Print.

Complete Prose Poems of Khalīl Jibrān. Trans. Yi Hong and Bing Xin. Beijing: Yanshan Publishing House, 2000. Print.

ʾAḥmad al-Faqīh. A Tunnel Lit by A Woman. Trans. Li Rongjian and Li Chen. Wuhan: Changjiang Literature and Art Publishing House, 2000. Print.

Selected Modern Arabic Poems. Trans. Guo Li. Changsha: Hunan Literature and Art Publishing House, 2000. Print.

Saʿād aṣ-Ṣabāḥ. Love Poems. Trans. Lin Fengmin. Beijing: The Chinese Overseas Publishing House, 2000. Print.

Saʿād aṣ-Ṣabāḥ. Last of the Swords. Trans. Lin Fengmin. Beijing: The Chinese Overseas Publishing House, 2000. Print.

Saʿād aṣ-Ṣabāḥ. Urgent Telegrams to My Homeland. Trans. Lin Fengmin. Beijing: The Chinese Overseas Publishing House, 2000. Print.

Saʿād aṣ-Ṣabāḥ. A Woman Without Shores. Trans. Lin Fengmin. Beijing: The Chinese Overseas Publishing House, 2000. Print.

Translation from other languages :

1.English

Arabian Nights. Trans. Xi Ruo. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1930. Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. The Prophet. Trans. Bing Xin. Shanghai: Xinyue Press, 1931. Print.

Arabian Nights. 2 vols. Trans. Xi Ruo. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1942. Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. The Prophet. Trans. Bing Xin. Shanghai: Kaiming Press, 1948. Print.

Arabian Nights. Trans. Xiao Bolun. Beijing: Popular Literature and Art Publishing House, 1956. Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. The Prophet. Trans. Bing Xin. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1957. Print.

Collection of Khalīl Jibrān’s Novels. Trans. Du Jian. Hong Kong: Daguang Press, 1975. Print.
One Thousand and One Days (selected translation). Trans.Du Jian. Liaoning: People’s Publishing House, 1981. Print.

Arabian Nights (selected translation). Trans. Xiao Bolun. Henan: Henan People’s Publishing House, 1981. Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. The Prophet. Trans. Bing Xin. Changsha: Hunan People’s Publishing House, 1983. Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. The Prophet. Trans. Bing Xin. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1986. Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. The Wanderer. Trans. Wu Yan. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1986. Print.
Khalīl Jibrān. Sand and Foam, The Prophet. Trans. Qian Mansu, et, all. Shijiazhuang: Hebei Education Press, 1994. Print.

Selected Prose Poems of Khalīl Jibrān. Trans. Lv Yan. Tianjing: Baihua Literature and Art Publishing House, 1995. Print.

2.Russian

Jaurij Ḥanā. Priests of the Temple. Trans. Wang Yiying and Cui Xilu. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House, 1957. Print.

Collection of Egyptian Short Stories. Trans. Sun Qizhang et, all. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House, 1957. Print.

Collection of Egyptian Short Stories. Trans. Qin Shui. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House, 1957. Print.

Land of the Nile (translated from Russian version of “Selected Egyptian Poems”). Trans. Russian Department of Nankai University. Tianjing: Baihua Literature and Art Publishing House, 1958. Print.

Maḥamūd Taymūr. Collection of Arabic Short Stories. Trans. Shui Jingxian and Liu Wenyan. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House,1958. Print.

Collection of Egyption Modern Short Stories. Trans. Qin Shui. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1958. Print.

This Pool of Blood Can Not Dry. Trans. Shui Jingxian and Qin Shui. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1959. Print.
ʿAbd al-Wahāb al-Bayātī. The Poetry of Exile. Trans. Wei Heyong. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1959. Print.

Collection of Lebanon Short Stories. Trans. Shui Ou. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1960. Print.
Maḥamūd Taymūr. No.2 tram. Trans. Shui Jingxian. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House, 1963. Print.

Arabian Nights (The sequel). Trans. Ding Qijiang. Yunnan: Yunnan People’s Publishing House, 1982. Print.

3.French

Last Impression. Trans. Shi Zhong. Shanghai: Shanghai Literature and Art Publishing House, 1962. Print.

Misery and Bright. Trans. Jin Zhiping. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House, 1964. Print.

The Silence of Ashes. Trans. Mei Shaowu. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House, 1965. Print.

Assia Djebar. Daughter of The New World. Trans. Xiao Man. Beijing: People’s Literature Press, 1978. Print.

4. Indonesian

Stories of ʾA Nuwās. Trans. Xu Younian. Beijing: China Folk Literature Press, 1985. Print.

Translations in magazines:

“Olive Tree” (selected from one thousand and one nights). Trans. Fan Shaomin. Arab World 1 (1980). Print.

ʿAbd as-Salām al-ʿUjīlī. ” Great Hunting.” Trans. Zhuang Suwen. Arab World 1 (1980). Print.

Maḥamūd Taymūr. ” Get Good Luck.” Trans. Guo Li. Arab World 2 (1980). Print.

ʿUthmā Saʿīd. ” Algerian Guerrillas.” Trans. Zhang Yifei. Arab World 2 (1980). Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. ” A Dangerous Bill.” Trans. Fan Shaomin. Arab World 2 (1980). Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. “Wolid Hani.” Trans. Han Jiarui. World Literature 3 (1980). Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. ” Song of the Storm.” Trans. Ge Jiyuan. World Literature 3 (1980). Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. ” A Tear and a Smile.” Trans. Li Zhanjing. World Literature 3 (1980). Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. ” The Madman.” Trans. Wu Zhenya. World Literature 3 (1980). Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. ” The Forerunner.” Trans. Wu Zhenya. World Literature 3 (1980). Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. ” The Awakening of Mummy.” (selected from Whisper of Madness).Trans. Meng Zao. Foreign Literature 6 (1980). Print.

Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm. “A Flash of Time”. Trans. Liu Wenzhao. World Literature 1 (1981). Print.

“Story of Baba Abdullah and Dervish” (selected from one thousand and one nights). Trans. Fan Shaomin and zhuang duwen. Arab World 3 (1981). Print.

ʾIḥsān ʿAbd al-Qudūs. “Old Man Buys Weapons.” Trans. Zhong Jikun. Foreign Literatures 3 (1981). Print.

Muḥammad Ḥasan. ” The Cradle of Hero.” Trans. Zhou Wenju. Arab World 4 (1981). Print.

ʾIbn Baṭūṭa. “ʾIbn Baṭūṭa’s Travels: The Part of China.” Trans. Ma Jinpeng. Arab World 4 (1981). Print.

Ghādat as-Sammān. “The Gray Danube.” Trans. Ma Ruiyu. Arab World 6 (1981). Print.

ʾAmīn Yūsuf. “Wahiba’s Anklet. ” Trans. Guo Shaohua. Foreign Literature 9 (1981). Print.

Ṭaha Ḥusayn. “The Days. ” Trans. Wu Yuchi. Foreign Literatures 4 (1982). Print.

Maḥamūd Taymūr. “I’d Like to Give You My Whole Heart.” Trans. Yang Shiyi. Foreign Literature 7 (1982). Print.

” Mouse War.” Trans. Shen Zhaodu. Foreign Literature 7 (1982). Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. ” Broken Wings.” Trans. Guo Li. Translations 2 (1983). Print.

” The Sad Night.” Trans. Xiao Lin. Translations 3 (1983). Print.

“Selected Palestine Poems.” Trans. Zhong Jikun. Foreign Literatures 3 (1983). Print.

” Revenge.” Trans. Jin Hui. Foreign Literatures 9 (1983). Print.

Muṣṭafā Luṭfī al-Manfalūṭī. “Orphan.” Trans. Liang Yaqin. Foreign Literatures 4 (1984). Print.

Ḥasan Yāsīn. “Orange.” Trans. Zhang Jiamin. Foreign Literatures 2 (1985). Print.

Ṣalāḥ ʿAbd al-Ṣubūr. “Readme” (poem). Trans. Zhong Jikun. World Literature 5 (1985). Print.

“You Are not Familiar with The Night Kingdom” (poem). Trans. Ni Luo. World Literature 5 (1985). Print.

” Dense Circle” (poem).Trans. Zhu Kai. World Literature 5 (1985). Print.

” Chief’s Adventures in Egypt “. Trans. Feng Zuoku. World Literature 5 (1985). Print.

Yūsuf al-Qāʿid. “Ahmed and His Sister BahiYa”. Trans. Wang Yunze. World Literature 5 (1985). Print.

Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm. ” Road to Success.” Trans. Zhu Kai. Foreign Literature 8 (1985). Print.

Yūsuf ʾIdrīs. ” Soliped Ahmed.” Trans. Guan Cheng. Foreign Literature 8 (1985). Print.

“I Belong to You.” Trans. Li Weizhong. Foreign Literature 8 (1985). Print.

Yūsuf ʾIdrīs. ” Virginity.” Trans. Bao Zhaoyan. Foreign Literature 8 (1985). Print.

ʿIsā Ibrāhīm Al-Nā‘ūrī. ” Priest of Village.” Trans. Ma Ruiyu. Foreign Literature 8 (1985). Print.

Saʿīd Khurānī. “The Third Child.” Trans. Zhi Fuhao. Foreign Literature 8 (1985). Print.

Yūsuf ʾIdrīs. ” Doubt.” Trans. Xie Chuanguang. Foreign Literature 8 (1985). Print.

Muṣṭafā Fāris. ” Old Days’s Shadow.” Trans. Gui Yunchang. Foreign Literature 8 (1985). Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. ” Boat in fog.” Trans. Ge Jiyuan. World Literature 8 (1985). Print.

“Five Immigrant Poets.” Trans. Guo Li and Guo Qiaoqiao. Foreign Literature 8 (1985). Print.

Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm. ” The People In the Cave.” Trans. Zhang Jingbo. Foreign Literature 2 (1986). Print.

Yūsuf Jawāhir. “Forbidden Love.” Trans. Zhong Jikun. Foreign Literatures 4 (1986). Print.

ʾAḥmad Shawqī. “Madman.” Trans. Li Weizhong. Foreign Literatures 4 (1986). Print.

Yūsuf Sibāʿī. ” Funeral Parlors Owner and <Longevity>.” Trans. Yi Hong. World Literature 6 (1986). Print.

Ṭayyb Ṣāliḥ. “Palm Wad Hamid.” Trans. Zhang Jiatian. Foreign Literatures1 (1987). Print.

“Selected Essays of Khalīl Jibrān.” Trans. Zhong Jikun. Foreign Literatures 2 (1988). Print.

ʿAbd Allāh bin Ḥuduq. “Headless Statue.” Trans. Guo Liming. Foreign Literatures 3 (1988). Print.

Yūsuf Shalūnī. “Mother and Beast.” Trans. Wang Shaoxin and Shi Guangting. Foreign Literatures 4 (1988). Print.

Ghādat as-Sammān. “No Sea in Beirut.” Trans. Ma Ruiyu. World Literature 4 (1988). Print.

ʾIbn Naṣrq. “Depths of the sea “. Trans. Zhang Yi and Peng Lingyi. World Literature 4 (1988). Print.

ʾIbn Naṣrq. “Curse “. Trans. Li Chen. World Literature 4 (1988). Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. “Miramar”. Trans. Zhong Jikun. World Literature 2 (1989). Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. “Tyrant.” Trans. Jing Zi. Foreign Literature 2 (1989). Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. “Credentialed representative.” Trans. Xie Chuanguang and Shi Luan. World vision 2 (1989). Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. “Diary Fragment of A Young Man.” Trans. Tao Muhua. Translations 3 (1989). Print.

Najīb Karānī. “Meet Tomorrow.” Trans. Jiang Heping. Foreign Literatures 4 (1991). Print.

“Selected Modern Arabic Poems.” Trans. Zhong Jikun. Foreign Literatures 1 (1992). Print.

Khalīfa Taris. “Where to Go.” Trans. Li Rongjian. Translations 1 (1993). Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. “Soliloquys.” Trans. Fei Qin. Translations 3 (1993). Print.

Al-Maʿālī. ” Luzūmiyat.” Trans. Zhong Jikun. Foreign Literatures 3 (1993). Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. ” Music.” Trans. Yi Hong. World Literature 5 (1993). Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. ” Century Dust and Eternal Fire.” Trans. Yi Hong. World Literature 5 (1993). Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. ” Wedding Bed.” Trans. Yi Hong. World Literature 5 (1993). Print.

Khalīl Jibrān. ” Boat in Fog.” Trans. Yi Hong. World Literature 3 (1993). Print.

Maḥamūd Taymūr. “Beggar”. Trans. Yi Hong. World Literature 1 (1994). Print.

Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm. “Disease of Bunkum”. Trans. Yi Hong. World Literature 1 (1994). Print.

A.H. ʾAḥmad. “On the Edge of Daytime”. Trans. Liu Wenzhao. World Literature 1 (1995). Print.

Rafīq Shāmī. “On Garbage Heap.” Trans. Chen Guang. Translations 1 (1995). Print.

ʾAmjad Tawfīq. ” Forest Scenery.” Trans. Weng Benze. Translations 3 (1995). Print.

ʾAbdar Salīm. “Lost Suitcase.” Trans. Huo Gejun. Translations 3 (1995). Print.

” A Quarter of Husband.” Trans. Liang Yaqin. World Literature 2 (1995). Print.

“Women’s Rejection”(potery). Trans. Zhong Jikun. World Literature 2 (1995). Print.

Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm. “Wedding Night.” Trans. Weng Benze. Translations 1 (1996). Print.

ʿAlī Misrāt. “Story of The Female Spy.” Trans. Li Rongjian. Translations 1 (1996). Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. ” Echoes of an Autobiography.” Trans. Chen Yan. World Literature 5 (1996). Print.

Muḥammad Makhrij. “In the Cold Night.” Trans. Li Rongjian. Translations 3 (1997). Print.

Muḥammad Makhrij. ” A Song for Her ” Trans. Li Rongjian. Translations 5 (1997). Print.

ʿAlī Al-gānim. ” Marry A Wife for Son.” Trans. Lu Suyan. Translations 6 (1997). Print.

Najīb Kayyālī. ” Water Drops.” Trans. Li Rongjian. Translations 4 (1998). Print.

Najīb Maḥfūẓ. “Murderer of The Old Case.” Trans. Yang Wenxiang. Contemporary Foreign Literature 2 (1999). Print.

Shawqī Baghdādī. “Her Home in the Foothills.” Trans. Guo Li. Translations 3 (1999). Print.

Ḥasan Ḥamīd. ” The Orphan.” Trans. Li Rongjian. Translations 1 (2000). Print.

ʾAbū Muslim. ” Quit Smoking.” Trans. Li Rongjian. Translations 2 (2000). Print.

ʿAlī Misrāt. ” Woman Who Catches Butterflies “. Trans. Li Rongjian. Translations 4 (2000). Print.

Sha (family name) Min(given name), is doing her Ph.D in Arabic literature as part of the Arabic language department at Shanghai International Studies University. She is currently looking at the International Prize for Arabic Fiction and its influence on contemporary Arabic lierature. She can be contacted at laiyilia1985@gmail.com.

[1] The two books of Ma Zongrong were translated from French into Chinese.

[2] Trilogy means Palace Walk, Palace of Desire, Sugar Street.

[3] This bibliography is arranged in chronological order.



Categories: Chinese, translation

3 replies

  1. Wow, only one female author. So much for the revolutionary vanguard …

  2. Can hardly believe the first translation of the Nights is from the 1930s!

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